Stephen is an Associate Professor in Applied Exercise Physiology & Performance. He is currently the Director of the Centre for Applied Performance Sciences within the Faculty. He joined St Marys in 2009 having previously graduated with a BSc in Sport and Exercise Science from Napier University, Edinburgh (2005) before completing an MSc in Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise from Strathclyde University in Glasgow (2006). He then moved to Loughborough University where he completed his PhD specialising on the responses and adaptations to exercise with blood flow restriction.
Stephens’s research fits into two main themes of Health and Sports Performance with significant overlap between the two. He works with external stakeholders and industry partners to address questions and research that meets their needs. His main research focuses on the following:
- Blood flow restriction training for rehabilitation and performance
- Ischemic Preconditioning
- Physiology of team sports
- Jonathan Griffin (PhD student: St Marys University / Surrey University) – “The effect Ischemic Preconditioning on parameters of athletic performance” – (Completed - January 2017)
- Luke Hughes (PhD student: St Marys University / Liverpool Hope) – “Blood flow restriction as a clinical rehabilitation tool.” – (Completed - January 2019). Currently Post doctoral researcher at St Marys.
- Paul Head (PhD student: St Mary's University / Liverpool Hope) - "The efficacy of blood flow restriction training in clinical populations." – Director of Studies
- Luke Woodhouse (PhD Student: St Marys University / Liverpool Hope) – “The physical and fitness characteristics of elite female rugby players and the relationships to match performance”. – Director of Studies
- Nasir Uddin (PhD Student: St Marys University / Liverpool Hope) – “Central and Peripheral Modulations following Hypo-hydration and Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries in combat athletes.”. – Director of Studies
- Paul Hough (PhD Student: St Marys University / Liverpool Hope) – “ The assessment of psychomotor vigilance performance following circadian rhythm misalignment in elite athletes and skilled performers” – Supervisor
- David Silver (PhD student: St Marys University / Surrey University) – “Concussion in youth rugby”. – Director of studies
- Jourdain Benstead-Banthorpe (PhD student: St Marys / Liverpool Hope) – “The effect of blood flow restriction training on individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome” – Director of Studies
- Jamie Farrell (PhD Student: St Marys University / Liverpool Hope) – “The use of blood flow restriction in lower back pain patients” – Director of Studies.
- Hughes L, & Patterson SD (2020). The effect of blood flow restriction exercise on exercise induced hypoalgesia and endogenous opioid and endocannabinoid mechanisms of pain modulation. J Appl Physiol, doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00768.2019.
- Burr J, Hughes L, Warmington S, Burr J, Scott BR, Owens J, Abe T, Nielsen JL, Libardi CA, Laurentino G, Neto GR, Brandner C, Martin-Hernandez J, Loenneke J, Patterson SD (2020). Response: Commentary: Can Blood Flow Restricted Exercise Cause Muscle Damage? Commentary on Blood Flow Restriction Exercise: Considerations of Methodology, Application, and Safety. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, 1374, doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.574633.
- Uddin N, Jeffries O, Read R, Howe L, Patterson SD, Waldron M (2020). Physiological Responses to Linear and Non-Linear Soccer-Specific Match Simulations and their Effects on Neuromuscular Fatigue. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 34(11), 3232-3240.
- Head P, Waldron M, Theis N, Patterson SD (2020). Acute Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) with blood flow restriction: the effect of restriction pressures. Journal of Sport rehabilitation, 1(aop), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2019-0505.
- Hughes L, Patterson SD (2019). Low intensity blood flow restriction exercise: Rationale for a hypoalgesia effect. Med Hypotheses. Aug 17;132:109370. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109370.
- Mooney T, Malone S, Darragh I, Bennett S, Collins K, Price P, Patterson SD (2019). Investigating the Role of Anthropometric and Physical Performance Measures on Team Selection in Elite and Sub-Elite Under-20 Gaelic Football Players. Australian Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27 (5), 3-13.
- Patterson SD, Hughes L, Warmington S, Burr J, Scott BR, Owens J, Abe T, Nielsen JL, Libardi CA, Laurentino G, Neto GR, Brandner C, Martin-Hernandez J, Loenneke,J,(2019).Blood Flow Restriction Exercise : Considerations of Methodology, Application,and Safety. Frontiers in Physiology, 10:533. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00533.
- Hughes L., Rosenblatt B., Haddad F., Gissane C, McCarthy D, Clarke T, Ferris G, Dawes J, Paton B, Patterson SD (2019). Comparing the Effectiveness of Blood Flow Restriction and Traditional Heavy Load Resistance Training in the Post-Surgery Rehabilitation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patients: A UK National Health Service Randomised Controlled Trial Sports Medicine, 1-19, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01137-2 .
- Hughes L, Patterson SD, Haddad F, Rosenblatt B, Gissane C, McCarthy D, Clarke T, Ferris G, Dawes J, Paton B. (2019). Examination of the comfort and pain experienced with blood flow restriction training during post-surgery rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patients: A UK National Health Service trial. Physical Therapy in Sport, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.06.014 .
- Anderson AB, Owens JG, Patterson SD, Dickens JF, LeClere LE (2019). Blood Flow Restriction Therapy: From Development to Applications. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. Sep;27(3):119-123. doi: 10.1097/JSA.0000000000000240.
- Hart L, Cohen D, Patterson SD, Springham M, Reynolds J, Read P (2019). Previous injury is associated with heightened countermovement jump force‐time asymmetries in professional soccer players. Translational Sports Med, May, https://doi.org/10.1002/tsm2.92.
- Waldron M, Jeffries O, Tallent J, Patterson SD, Nevola V (2019). The time course of adaptations in thermoneutral maximal oxygen consumption following heat acclimation. European journal of applied physiology, 1-9.
- Silva JC, Neto EP, Neto GR, Bemben MG, Patterson SD, Batista G, Cirilo Sousa M (2019). Acute and chronic adaptations of aerobic exercise with blood flow restriction: a systematic review. Frontiers in Physiology.
- Chhetri I, Hunt JEA, Mendis JR, Patterson SD, Puthucheary ZA, Montgomery HE, Creagh-Brown BC (2019). Repetitive vascular occlusion stimulus (RVOS) versus standard care to prevent muscle wasting in critically ill patients (ROSProx):a study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. Trials. Jul 24;20(1):456. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3547-5.
- Jeffries O, Waldron M, Patterson SD, Galna B. (2019). An Analysis of Variability in Power Output During Indoor and Outdoor Cycling Time-Trials. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019 Mar 12:1-20. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0539.
- Butterfield, James, Tallent, Jamie, Patterson, Stephen D., Jeffries, Owen, Howe, Louis and Waldron, Mark (2019) The validity of a head-worn inertial sensor for measurements of swimming performance. Movement & Sport Sciences, doi.org/10.1051/sm/2019027
- Jeffries O, Simmons R, Patterson SD, Waldron M. (2019). Functional Threshold Power Is Not Equivalent to Lactate Parameters in Trained Cyclists. J Strength Cond Res. Jul 1. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003203.
- Waddingham DP, Millyard A, Patterson SD, Hill J (2019). Effect of Ballistic Potentiation Protocols on Elite Sprint Swimming: Optimizing Performance. J Strength Cond Res. May 27. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003219.
- Madison G, Patterson SD, Read P, Howe L, Waldron M (2019). Effects of Small-Sided Game Variation on Changes in Hamstring Strength. J Strength Cond Res. Mar;33(3):839-845. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002955.
- Jeffries O, Evans DT, Waldron M, Coussens A, Patterson SD. (2019). Seven-day ischaemic preconditioning improves muscle efficiency during cycling. J Sports Sci. Sep 9:1-8. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1664537. [Epub ahead of print].
- Waldron M, Patterson SD, Jeffries O (2019). Oral taurine improves critical power and severe-intensity exercise tolerance. Amino Acids. Sep 3. doi: 10.1007/s00726-019-02775-6.
- Marocolo M, Simim MAM, Bernardino A, Monteiro IR, Patterson SD, da Mota GR (2019). Ischemic preconditioning and exercise performance: shedding light through smallest worthwhile change. Eur J Appl Physiol. Aug 26. doi: 10.1007/s00421-019-04214-6.
- Jeffries O, Patterson SD, Waldron M (2019). The effect of severe and moderate hypoxia on exercise at a fixed level of perceived exertion. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 119(5):1213-1224. doi: 10.1007/s00421-019-04111-y.
- Lonergan B, Sennington B, Patterson SD, Price P (2018). The effect of fatigue on phase specific countermovement jump asymmetries in ACL-R and non-injured rugby union players. Translational Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1002/tsm2.48.
- Hughes L, Paton B, Haddad F, Rosenblatt B, Gissane C, Patterson SD (2018). Comparison of the acute perceptual and blood pressure response to heavy load and light load blood flow restriction resistance exercise in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patients and non-injured populations. Physical Therapy in Sport, 33, 54-61, DOI: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.07.002.
- Ladlow P, Coppack R, Dharm-Datta S, Conway D, Sellon E, Patterson SD, Bennett A (2018). Low load resistance training with blood flow restriction improves clinical outcomes in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: A single blind randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 1269.
- Jeffries O, Waldron M, Patterson SD (2018). Enhanced local skeletal muscle oxidative capacity following seven-day ischemic preconditioning in healthy humans. Frontiers in Physiology. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00463.
- Hughes L, Paton B, Rosenblatt B, Gissane C. & Patterson SD (2018). Interface pressure, perceptual and cardiovascular responses to different blood flow restriction systems. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28, 7, DOI: 10.1111/sms.13092.
- Hughes L, Jeffries O, Waldron M, Paton B, Rosenblatt B, Gissane C, & Patterson SD (2018). The influence of body position on the measurement of limb occlusion pressure: Implications for Blood flow restriction and Ischemic preconditioning research. Peer J, 6:e4697, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4697.
- Blagrove RC, Holding KM, Patterson SD, Howatson G, Haes PR (2019). Efficacy of depth jumps to elicit a post activation performance enhancement in junior endurance runners. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(2):239-244. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.07.023.
- Waldron M, Patterson SD, Tallent J, Jeffries O. (2018). The Effects of Oral Taurine on Resting Blood Pressure in Humans: a Meta-Analysis. Current Hypertension Reports. 20, 81: DOI: 10.1007/s11906-018-0881-z.
- Griffin, J, Hughes L, Gissane C, and Patterson, SD. (2018). Effects of local versus remote ischemic preconditioning on repeated sprint running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, DOI: 10.23736/s0022-4707.18.08400-1.
- Waldron M, Cameron R, Jeffries O, Tallent J, Theis N, Patterson SD (2018). The effects of acute leucine or leucine-glutamine co-ingestion on recovery from eccentrically-biased exercise. Amino Acids, 50, 831, DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2565-z.
- Waldron M, Knight F, Tallent J, Patterson SD, Jeffries O. (2018). The effects of taurine on repeat sprint cycling after low or high cadence exhaustive exercise in females. Amino Acids, 50, 6, 663-669, DOI: 10.1007/s00726-018-2554-2.
- Waldron M, Patterson SD, Tallent J, Jeffries O. (2018). The effects of oral taurine dose and supplementation period on endurance exercise performance in humans: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48, 5, 1247-1253, DOI: 10.1007/s40279-018-0896-2.
- Nevin JP, Waldron M, Patterson SD, Price M, Hunt A, Blagrove R. (2018). The Efficacy of an 8-Week Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Program on Hand Cycling Performance. Journal of Strength and conditioning Research, 32, 7, 1861-1868, DOI: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000002569.
- Hattersley C, Wells C, Blagrove R, Trangmar S, Patterson SD (2018). Impact of Fixture Congestion on indices of performance and recovery in youth soccer players. Sport Performance & Science Reports, 1.
- Mackay J, Patterson SD, Jeffries O, Waldron M (2018). Limited effects of short-term heat acclimation during a rugby league training week. Archives pf physical Health & Sports Medicine, 1, 22-33.
- Waldron M, Patterson SD, Jeffries O (2018). Inter-Day reliability of Finapres cardiovascular measurements during rest an exercise. Sports International Open, 2 (01), E9-E15.
- Marocolo IC, da Mota GR, Londe AM, Patterson SD, Barbosa Neto O, Marocolo M. (2017) Acute ischemic preconditioning does not influence high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. PeerJ 5:e4118. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4118.
- Ladlow P, Coppack R, Dharm-Datta S, Conway D, Sellon E, Patterson SD, Bennett A (2017). The effects of low-intensity blood flow restricted exercise compared with conventional resistance training on the clinical outcomes of active UK military personnel following a 3-week in-patient rehabilitation programme: protocol for a randomized controlle Pilot & Feasibility Studies, 3, 71, DOI: 10.1186/s40814-017-0216-x.
- Jeffries O, Hill J, Patterson SD, Waldron (2017). Energy drink doses of caffeine and taurine have a null or negative effect on sprint performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Oct 23. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002299.
- Patterson SD, Hughes L, Head P, Warmington S, Brandner C (2017). Blood flow restriction training: A novel alternative approach to augment clinical rehabilitation: How to do it?. British Journal of Sports Medicine. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-097738.
- Hughes, L, Paton, B, Rosenblatt, B & Patterson SD (2017). Blood flow restriction training in rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery: A Review. Techniques in Orthopedics. DOI: 10.1097/BTO.0000000000000265.
- Griffin, J, Ferguson, R.A. and Patterson, SD (2017).The effect of ischemic preconditioning on 3 minute all out cycling performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, Jul 7:1-6. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2017.1349923.
- Hughes L, Paton B, Rosenblatt B, Gissane C. & Patterson SD. (2017). Blood flow restriction training in clinical musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097071s.
- Patterson SD, Jeffries O. & Waldron M. (2017). Commentary on viewpoint: Could small diameter muscle afferents be responsible for the ergogenic effect of limb ischemic preconditioning? Journal of Applied Physiology, 122: 721–725.
- Warnock R, Jeffries O, Patterson SD, & Waldron M. (2017). The effects of caffeine, taurine or caffeine-taurine co-ingestion on repeat-sprint cycling performance and physiological responses. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0570.
- Fox R, Patterson SD. & Waldron M. (2017). The relationship between heart rate recovery and temporary fatigue of kinematic and energetic indices among soccer players. Science and Medicine in Football, doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2017.1329590.
- Veness D, Patterson SD, Jeffries O, & Waldron M. (2017). The effects of mental fatigue on cricket-relevant performance among elite players. Journal of Sports Sciences, doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1273540.
- Waldron M, Whelan K, Jeffries O, Burt D, Howe L, Patterson SD (2017). The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained males. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, doi: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0569.
- Patterson SD, & Brandner C (2017). The role of blood flow restriction training for applied practitioners: A questionnaire based survey. Journal of Sports Sciences, Feb 1:1-8. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2017.1284341.
- Page, W, Swan, R. and Patterson SD (2017). Repetitive vascular occlusion enhances recovery following exercise induced muscle damage. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.015.
- Patterson SD, Pattison J, Legg H, Gibson AM, Brown N (2016). The impact of badminton on health markers in untrained females. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(11), 1098-1106, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1210819.
- Patterson SD, Glaister M, Pattison JR, Bezodis N (2015). The effect of ischemic preconditioning on repeated sprint cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 47(8), 1652-1658, DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000576.
- Glaister M, Muniz-Pumares Pattison JR, Foley P, Patterson SD (2015). Combined effect of nitrate and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (1), 165-174.
- Glaister M, Muniz-Pumares D, Patterson SD, Mcinnes G (2015). Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output. European Journal of Sports Sciences, 15(5):400-6. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2014.962619
- Patterson SD, Leggate M, Nimmo MA and Ferguson RA (2013). Circulating hormone and cytokine changes following resistance training with blood flow restriction in older men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(3), 713-719, DOI: 10.1007/s00421-012-2479-5
- Glaister M, Patterson SD, Foley P, Pedlar C, Pattison JR and McInnes G (2012) Caffeine and sprinting performance: dose responses and efficacy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(4), 1001-1005. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822BA300
- Patterson, SD, and Ferguson RA (2011). Resistance training with blood flow restriction enhances the increase in strength and calf blood flow in older people. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 19, 201-213.
- Patterson, SD, and Ferguson RA (2010). Increase in calf post-occlusive blood flow and strength following short term resistance exercise training with blood flow restriction in young women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108, 1025-1033. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-009-1309-x
- Patterson, SD, Gray, SR., and Nimmo, M.A. (2008). The response of plasma interleukin-6 and its soluble receptors to exercise in the cold in humans. Journal of Sports Science 26, 927-933. DOI: 10.1080/02640410801885941
- Patterson, SD., and Gray, SR. (2007). Carbohydrate-gel supplementation and endurance performance during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 17, 445-455.
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