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Musculoskeletal Mechanics

The aim of the research cluster is to understand the function and loading of the musculoskeletal system during movement. 

There are multiple potential applications of this research across various domains including health, disease, injury and performance. A particular focus of the group is the use of musculoskeletal modelling technology, other in silico models and thought experiments in exploring the topic.



PhD students

    • Phil Price (using musculoskeletal modelling to evaluate osteoarthritis)
    • Emily Cushion (mechanics and motor control of vertical jumping)
    • Jon Goodwin (mechanics of sprinting)

All research degree students at St Mary’s are part of the Doctoral College. If you would like to discuss your proposal please email  conor.gissane@stmarys.ac.uk.


Selected publications

  • Cushion, E. J., Goodwin, J. E., & Cleather, D. J. (2015).  Relative intensity influences the degree of correspondence of jump squats and push jerks to countermovement jumps.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, in press.  doi:  10.1519/JSC.0000000000001211
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2015).  The development of a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb: Introducing FreeBody.  Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140449.  doi:  10.1098/rsos.140449 
  • Cleather, D. J., Southgate, D. F. L., & Bull, A. M. J. (2015).  The role of the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in closed chain lower limb extension.  Journal of Theoretical Biology, 365, 217-225.  doi:  10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.10.020
  • Cleather, D. J., Southgate, D. F. L., & Bull, A. M. J. (2014).  On the role of the patella, ACL and joint contact forces in the extension of the knee.  PLoS ONE, 9, e115670.  doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0115670
  • Cleather, D. J., Goodwin, J. E., & Bull, A. M. J. (2013).  Hip and knee joint loading during vertical jumping and push jerking.  Clinical Biomechanics, 28, 98-103.  doi:  10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2012.10.006
  • Cleather, D. J., Goodwin, J. E., & Bull, A. M. J. (2013).  Inter-segmental moments during vertical jumping, landing and jerking.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27, 89-100.  doi:  10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825037ee
    Bull, A. M. J., & Cleather, D. J. (2012).  Editorial: Addendum to special issue on musculoskeletal modelling of the lower limb.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 226, 659-659.  doi:  10.1177/0954411912448284
  • Southgate, D. F. L., Cleather, D. J., Weinert-Aplin, R., & Bull, A. M. J. (2012).  The sensitivity of a lower limb model to non-sagittal plane rotations at the knee.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 226, 660-669.  doi:  10.1177/0954411912439284
  • Bull, A. M. J., & Cleather, D. J. (2012).  Editorial: Special issue on musculoskeletal modelling of the lower limb.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 226, 81-81.  doi:  10.1177/0954411911435295
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2012).  The development of lower limb models with clinical relevance is dependent on the fidelity of the mathematical description of the lower limb.  Part 1: Equations of motion.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 226, 120-132.  doi:  10.1177/0954411911432104
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2012).  The development of lower limb models with clinical relevance is dependent on the fidelity of the mathematical description of the lower limb.  Part 2: Patient-specific geometry.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 226, 133-145.  doi:  10.1177/0954411911432105 
  • Cleather, D. J., Goodwin, J. E., & Bull, A. M. J. (2011).  Erratum to: An optimization approach to inverse dynamics provides insight as to the function of the biarticular muscles during vertical jumping.  Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39, 2476-2478.  doi:  10.1007/s10439-011-0340-3
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2011).  An optimization-based simultaneous approach to the determination of muscular, ligamentous, and joint contact forces provides insight into musculoligamentous interaction. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39, 1925-1934.  doi:  10.1007/s10439-011-0303-8 
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2011).  Knee and hip joint forces: Sensitivity to the degrees of freedom classification at the knee.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225, 621-626.doi:  10.1177/0954411911399975 
  • Cleather, D. J., Goodwin, J. E., & Bull, A. M. J. (2011).  An optimization approach to inverse dynamics provides insight as to the function of the biarticular muscles during vertical jumping.  Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 39, 147-160.doi:  10.1007/s10439-010-0161-9
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2010).  Influence of inverse dynamics methods on the calculation of inter-segmental moments in vertical jumping and weightlifting.  Biomedical Engineering Online, 9, 74.doi:  10.1186/1475-925X-9-74
  • Cleather, D. J., & Bull, A. M. J. (2010).  Lower extremity musculoskeletal geometry affects the calculation of patellofemoral forces in vertical jumping and weightlifting.  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 224, 1073-1083.  doi:  10.1243/09544119JEIM731